The apple scar skin disease was first re- ported 60 years ago in China ( Manchuria) with the name “Manshu-sabika-byo” (19). Twenty years later, two apple. Cause These diseases are caused by Apple scar skin viroid. Many infected cultivars of apple or pear do not express symptoms of disease. Apple scar skin viroid(ASSVd), a pathogenic RNA viroid, infects apple and pear trees. To determine if ASSVd can also infect apricot, we performed reverse.

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This circular DNA was linearized to a 2. Implication of Bemisia tabaci Heat shock protein 70 in begomovirus-whitefly interactions. Groups of 20 whiteflies were transferred to 5 healthy cucumber plants.

Because some insects are known to possess endogenous reverse transcription activity, 18 total DNA of the whitefly was isolated and tested for a possible DNA form of the viroid using PCR.

Here, we demonstrated that the glasshouse whitefly acts as a vector for a pathogenic viroid RNA ASSVd known to propagate in plants, yeast Avocado sunblotch viroid and Chlamydomonas Eggplant latent viroid. Vlroid, we report the transfer of a viroid ASSVd by the glasshouse whitefly Tvan economically important insect pest that severely affects crops, including cucumber, beans, sweet peppers, tomatoes and chrysanthemum.

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Chemiluminescent detection was performed using CDP vitoid Ambion according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Because these pathogens are non-protein-coding, they recruit host proteins to perform all of their major functions, including replication, trafficking and pathogenesis.

The same band was observed in non-viroidliferous whiteflies, but its intensity was comparatively quite low.


Some RNA species possess stem loop structures similar to tRNAs, and the existence of other unknown RNAs with such structures, which can confer increased stability, is probable. Archives of Virology ; Replication of Avocado sunblotch viroid in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Like most websites we use cookies. A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circular transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

Bulletins of Nagano Hort. Knowledge Bank home Change location.

Apple scar skin viroid naked RNA is actively transmitted by the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum

The DNA form of a retroviroid-like element is involved in recombination events with itself and with the plant genome. Enhanced resolution of circular and linear molecular forms of viroid and viroid-like RNA by electrophoresis in a discontinuous-pH system. Viroidd therapy of ASSVd-infected apple materials can be effective as long as plants are first subject to a dormant stage before heat therapy and shoot-tip grafting Howell et al.

Side box indicates size of the different fragments bp, bp, bp, bp and giroid obtained after digestion of RCA product in case of viroidliferous whitefly. RNA-mediated interference and reverse sjin control the persistence of RNA viruses in the insect model Drosophila. Dot blot hybridization of the various plants inoculated through whitefly: This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

Potato leafroll virus-assisted aphid transmission of potato spindle tuber viroid to potato leafroll virus-resistant potato. The whitefly-inoculated beans developed interveinal chlorosis at one month post-inoculation, which is characteristic of ASSVd infection Fig.

apple dimple (Apple scar skin viroid)

S3 and North-Western hybridization Fig. We also present evidence for the acquisition and transfer of naked RNA viroid transcripts by the insect vector under in vitro conditions and a potential role of CsPP2 in viroid transmission. To our surprise, the non-specific bp amplicon was neither of whitefly origin nor a mutated shorter form of the viroid, as is known in the case of CaSVd-like RNA. Whiteflies family Aleyrodidae are pests of herbaceous and woody plants in tropical countries and of greenhouse-grown plants in temperate climates.


Viroids are small, circular, single-stranded ribonucleic acid RNA pathogens that infect several plant species, causing huge economic losses.

List of primers used in this study.

EPPO Global Database

Ann Phytopathological Society of Japan ; Nucleic acid transfer between plants is a phenomenon which is likely to occur in many ways in nature. Plant Dis ; Phloem protein acar of Cucurbit aphid borne yellows virus: Both amplification products were cloned and sequenced. Sundararaj, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India for his help in identification of the whitefly species as Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

A high incidence of ASSVd in commercial apple orchards has been observed, and this alple was thought to be related to the transmission of the viroid by razor blades in the field. We also demonstrated that the ASSVd-CsPP2 complex exists in vitro and in cucumber phloem, which suggests a mechanism for passage of the viroid from plants to whiteflies.

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