Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.

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They, too, can absorb more of a nation’s efforts and resources than is compatible with the vital needs of national security or power. Rapid switches from enmity to amity among states, collsboration, may arouse passionate criticism because the public’s hatreds usually die slowly.

Because coercion as a substitute for diplomatic persuasion has little place among allies, “amical diplomacy” directed at the prevention collaboratio resolution of interallied conflict becomes particularly important here.

Here again, immediate needs of self-preservation, which include the need for internal unity and public support of the government, place limits on the extent to which the pursuit of this goal is rational under given circumstances. There can be no “state behavior” except as the term is used to colllaboration the combined behavior of individual human beings organized into a state.

Certainly, to the degree that these compulsions exist in the real world, the psychological peculiarities of the actors are de- prived of the opportunity to express themselves and therefore can be discounted as irrelevant to an analysis of international politics. When this happens these leaders place their states in the service of the transnational cause of abolishing Western colonial rule everywhere.

Similarly, efforts to promote international law or to establish international organizations, undertaken consistently by many nations, are addressed to the milieu in which nations operate and indeed such efforts make sense only if nations have reason to concern themselves with things other than their collaboraiton possessions.

Full text of “Discord And Collaboration Essays On International Politics”

But these analogies are misleading. Your Web browser is not enabled for JavaScript. As in the Marxist view, behavior in foreign affairs is seen as determined by external conditions; the political multi- state system in this theory takes the place held by the economic capitalist system in Marxist theory.

Nor is it enough to prove on rational grounds that the nation-state is becom- ing increasingly less fit to satisfy the needs for security and economic development.

There is hardly a region left in the world where nation-states are not either already functioning or in the process of being established.

The men who act for their respective states are likely to find the going easier if they have sympathy and understanding for their opposite numbers and for their peoples. Whether a state has a “vital interest” in access to the sea or in the return of a lost province, for example depends on the relative values attached by its citizens to these national disord, on the one hand, and duscord private interests which would be sacrificed in the pursuit of the national objectives, on the other.


When not more than minor values are threatened by international discord, governments usually find it expedient to act according to estab- lished rules, since their interest in seeing others do likewise exceeds their interest in winning an occasional and minor advantage.

Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics – Arnold Wolfers – Google Books

English View all editions and formats. Although the emphasis on the decision- makers, like the emphasis on the minds of men, developed In pro- test against the states-as-actors theory, it was not also a reaction born of humanitarian or social considerations; It was provoked, instead, by the sweeping, seemingly oversimplified psychological and anthropological presuppositions on which the traditional theory rests.

Linked Data More info about Linked Data. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, Suddenly an opening occurs in front of them, offering an opportunity to move up close to the track.

Please verify that you are not a robot. Does the state not take on the character of an a-human monster to whom dignity is given gratuitously, if it is regarded as an actor in its own right, at liberty to place its interests above those of the human beings who compose it?

But it poses a serious problem for the theorist whose task is not to establish the 4 See Richard C. Still, one may question whether the quest for national security and power, for national independence, aggrandizement, or unifica- tion is any less “human” and therefore necessarily less appealing to the masses than the quest for food, shelter, comfort, and happi- ness.

The Utopian under- tones of many early pronouncements by those who espoused the new approach were unmistakable, but should not detract from the contribution which the new approach can make to realistic under- standing of world affairs.

General fears of losing the cherished possession of life, coupled with the stark ex- ternal threat to life, would produce the same reaction, whatever the psychological peculiarities of the actors. More will be said about these strains in a later chapter.

Tests on animals, children, or adults carried out by zoologists or psychologists may not be entirely barren of results if transferred by analogy to the international field; anything that can be learned about human or analogous animal behavior behavior induced, for instance, by fear, provocation, and rewards, or attitudes attributable to amity and enmity throws some light on events occurring on the stage of world affairs. Wolfers are by no means “academic. Please enter your name.

Here, the change of alignment did not depend on any prior change of public sentiment but did much to hasten such change. Among nations in conflict competition usually exists too, but it pertains only to their struggle to equip themselves with arms and alliances as the means of attaining their objectives. If they are thereby rendered incapable of a dispassionate view of the situation, they may fail, for instance, to seek amical solutions to conflicts that actually would be capable of peaceful resolution.

There could be no better vali- dation of our opening proposition that amity and enmity between states must be distinguished from their emotional setting than to point to the way Germany and Japan, the two major wartime enemies of the West, became important pillars of the West’s system of collective defense long before hatreds generated by the war had had time to subside.


AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. From the John Holmes Library Collection. Whether the United Nations has become a center of decision and action in its own right is a quaestio facti, as it is in the case of all the competitors of the nation-state.

Since World War II, for example, West Germany and France have at times been close to the pole of complete and even hostile separateness; but at other times they have been drawn so closely together that a merger of the two into a single European Union appeared a practical possibility. If nations and statesmen do, in fact, act differently when under the impact of orders or admonitions from the Vatican, to disregard the pope as an actor would mean overlooking a significant aspect of international politics.

The same is true, too, of many acts of individual generosity and charity which may pay high “dividends” to the donor and yet be a moral credit to him. Go-operation means sacrificing some degree of national independence with a view to co-ordinating, synchronizing, and rendering mutually profitable some of the political, military, or economic policies the co-operating nations intend to pursue.

Snyder and Glenn D.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics

To say that something wrnold In the interest of the state is like saying that a good roof is in the interest of the house, when what one really means is that a good roof Is considered vital by the house’s inhabitants who value the safety, completeness, and reputation of their residence. Here too, then, the states-as-actors theory and the collavoration as-actors theory must supplement each other.

Thus, since the days of Cobden, free-traders have argued that if governments ceased to interfere with commercial activities across borders the chief source of international conflict would be removed. They will srnold goals only if the decision is reached that some national effort involving sacrifices, or the risk of sacrifices, is to be made for their realization.

When tariff protection is made the objective of national policy it becomes an indirect national goal. In any case, the tendency for hostile feelings to linger on after the war is over may lead some governments to regret the skill with which they instilled hatred in the hearts of their people while fighting morale was at a premium. A second illustration should serve to show what is meant by compulsive action arising not from viscord danger but from an opportunity for gain.

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