PORT WORKS DESIGN MANUAL PART 2Guide to Design of Piers and Dolphins Civil Engineering Office Civil Engineering Department The Government. Find the most up-to-date version of BS at Engineering Buy BS Maritime works. Code of practice for the design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins from SAI Global.
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Differential vertical movement at structural joints may be accommodated by providing a short transition support to the rail. This interdependence also applies to surcharges.
The actions should, in general, be distributed along the wall by the waling or capping. Figure 1 shows an example of such a construction.
Code of practice for geotechnical design BS The capping and fenders should extend suficiently to seaward of the wall to avoid vessel impact on the wall units.
Worldwide Standards We can source any standard from anywhere in the world. If the seabed is rock, the rubble base may be omitted and b with an in-situ concrete blinding layer. Turnbuckles should be located where they can be readily accessed without leaving them unduly exposed. Conversely, the area behind a general cargo or container berth is an integral part of the whole, and the movement of cargo from ship to transit shed or open storage needs to be direct and as short as possible: These factors 634-2 all be taken into account when determining the orientation of the berth.
A risk assessment should be performed to identify hazards and any actions that might result from these hazards, including any accidental actions.
Annex A has been developed to ill this gap as far as possible. Figures 4c and 4d indicate the situation where the embedded wall is installed where the existing ground level is lower than the inal ground level behind the wall, and where backilling is completed before the soil in front of the wall is dredged away. The submerged weight of underwater portions of the wall should be used in calculating 3649-2 resisting forces. The dead weight of the cap and overlying soil is used to reduce uplift in the tension piles.
The sheeting should be secured to the soldier piles to bx differential movement and consequent b of material. They have the advantage over cantilever anchorages in that the actions are resisted by axial effects in the piles rather than in bending, and only very small forward movement of the anchor is experienced.
The availability of the plant should be taken into account when a design includes planned maintenance. Embedded retaining walls may be used where it is necessary to increase the depth of water in front of an existing structure.
As dredging takes place, the wall will yield and the pressure distribution will change from arched conditions at the upper level to the inal assumed linear active condition. When selecting the type of structure to be adopted for a new quay, account should be taken of the effect of such movements on ixed superstructures that span from a support on the quay structure or from retained ground within the active wedge to another support on the ground remote from it, and also of the proximity of existing structures.
A pinned connection may be provided to avoid setting up bending effects at this point. Where ties are attached directly to the wall and no walings are used, the wall element should be designed to resist the high local compressive action which occurs. If the bearing capacity of the soils beneath the caisson is inadequate, then this can be addressed by a number of methods such as grouting, vibro replacement, soil mixing or piling.
BS Maritime works. Code of practice for the design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins
One example of such actions is heavy plant passing along the top of illed ground behind quays: These also permit economies to be made in the base and wall thickness. Where diagonal tie-backs are provided, they should be arranged in opposing pairs. Movement joints should generally be provided at 15 m to 30 m intervals. Attention is drawn to the statutory requirement in the UK to carry out an impact assessment of all proposed maritime constructions. The structure and piping for petrochemical or similar pipelines may be precambered, to limit the deformations and to optimize the ability for liquid product to drain from the process lines when it is required to clear the pipes for cleaning or repair.
A services gallery, with full height head-room for access, is often an acceptable solution. Skip to main content. Preformed piles may be installed, by driving or placing in a preformed hole, in any seabed material, but might require an excessive penetration in soft clays and silts. This level should generally be as far below the top of the wall as practicable, usually just above low water level, in order to reduce the vertical span, and thus the bending moments in the wall. In the free-earth case, therefore, the result is an increase in stability rather than a saving in materials.
Where a large overhang occurs, as in the case of block B in Figure 20, a more thorough analysis will be needed. For certain types of deep sea Ro-Ro berths, the cope level might need to be lower than normal. Their committees work with the manufacturing and service industries, government, businesses and consumers to facilitate the production of British, European and International standards.
There are two basic types of relieved wall. Walings may be placed in front of or behind the embedded retaining wall but, in quays and jetties built in sea water, they should normally be placed behind to prevent mechanical damage and reduce corrosion.
Where open structures are used for marginal berths, the back-of-berth ill is usually retained behind a revetted slope. Care should be taken to avoid interference of bearing and sheet piles. Where this capability is not established, it should be assumed that there will be no regular maintenance of the structure except for those areas easily accessible from land.
Ships with variable-pitch propellers, particularly ferries, can cause worse scour than those with constant-pitch propellers.
Crack widths see 4. Construction tolerances for in-situ concrete piles should generally be in accordance with 8. Again there may be more recent versions of the document.
Continuous walls should be provided with suitable drainage measures to prevent differential hydrostatic pressures acting on them. In cohesive soils, the effects of soil shrinkage causing tension cracks within and landward of the anchorage zone should be taken into account. 63492 the seabed is sandy, a ilter layer of graded 634-2 should be placed between the rubble and subsoil to minimize settlement into the seabed. With a lexible wall, the anchorage forces are higher and the bending moments between anchorage and seabed are lower than those calculated assuming a linear stress distribution.
Preloading is usually left in place until the rate of settlement has met a chosen design criterion. In addition, passing vessels generate waves, although the period of such waves is generally too short to apply signiicant loads to a wall.
The Amber document status indicator indicates that some caution is needed when using this document – it is either: Although some combinations of actions are mutually exclusive, the probability of two or more large actions being applied to the structure simultaneously should be assessed.
A special relieving platform at the corner might be suitable for walls anchored by inclined piles.