The most important disease of camel is Trypanosomiasis, vector bornprotozoal disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi parasite with wide. 1Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), Kaduna, Kaduna State, Camel trypanosomosis (surra), caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is the most. It is concluded that camel trypanosomiasis in Sudan is apparently caused by a single parasite species T. evansi and there were no other.
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Moreover, this could be linked to one of the main characteristics trypajosomiasis trypanosome-induced immunosuppression in both experimental rodents and natural hosts, which consist in the eliciting of suppressor macrophages that results in a NO-mediated unresponsiveness in lymphocytes. Trypanosomiasis-induced infertility in dromedary Camelus dromedarius bulls: View at Google Scholar P. View at Google Scholar C. Screening and detection of these hemoparasites helps initiate early diagnosis and instauration of appropriate actions and guarantee higher performance.
Diagnostic Approach towards Camel Trypanosomiasis – – Deposit for Medical Articles
The sensitive and specific diagnosis and their applicability in the field are prerequisites for the epidemiological surveys. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. View at Google Scholar. Indian J Med Microbiol.
In fact, the evolution of the geographical distribution of T.
Pikas and hamsters were found to be spontaneously infected in enzootic areas in Central Asia [ 4 ]. The size of these blood parasites far exceeds the resolving power of ordinary light microscopes and readily observed even at lower magnifications. After careful examination of the blood smears and identification trypqnosomiasis the formed blood elements, trypanosomes were observed on 14 blood smears 9 males and 5 females in different stages.
Surra in camels Camelus dromedarius and C. It also affects sheep by delaying and depressing the number of lymphoblasts induced by Pasteurella haemolytica vaccine administration [ ] as well as pigs by interfering with their frypanosomiasis response to Classical Swine Fever CSF vaccine [ 24 ].
It has been hypothesized [ 26 ] that the loss of maxicircle trypanossomiasis DNA was responsible for the large range of hosts of T.
Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report
When the parasite is in very low numbers although able to induce immunosuppressive effectsor when it is absent from the host blood stream although present in the nervous systemidentification of the etiological agent and evaluation of its pathogenic effects and impact are especially difficult. However the name T. For these reasons, medical and economic impacts of T.
In such mixed epidemiological systems, the parasite can use equines to multiply and spread, while it can use bovines cattle and buffaloes as mild regular hosts and very efficient reservoirs. Geographical distribution of Trypanosoma evansi in the world data synthesis. Blood smears, Camel, Parasite, Trypanosomiasis.
It is present in sub-Saharan and Mediterranean climates but can be found in temperate areas as well as in arid deserts and semiarid steppes. The regulatory DCs became prevalent during the progress of infection, therefore reducing the amount of inflammatory DCs, and as a potential regulator of the inflammatory responses, suggesting the use of the inflammatory responses to immunosuppress the host, but regulation to avoid irreversible pathophysiological effects [ ].
As it is able to infect deer, wild pigs, and rodents [ 88 ], T. The most well-known escape mechanism developed by trypanosomes is the antigenic variation by which they successively exhibit various main membrane surface glycoproteins: Its presence was suspected in Papua New Guinea but was not confirmed [ 34 ].
Trop Anim Health Prod. Camel trypanosomosis in the Canary Islands: View at Google Scholar R. Trypanosoma evansi was introduced through infected horses in Australia and Canada in the early XXth century, but control measures, including slaughtering of infected animals, enabled early eradication [ 4 ]. Contamination by contact of a wound with infected animal blood was suspected [ ].
Nowadays, its geographical distribution is continuous from the northern part of Africa through the Middle East to South-East Asia.
Attempts to characterize T. Hind leg paralysis in a pig naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi in Malaysia courtesy, Dr. CD8 ratio and IgG1 was associated with self-cure in T.
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The same results were obtained when performing the experiment and analysis on lymphocyte phenotypes draining from a lymph node of a T. Furthermore, TSIF had the capacity of downregulating type 2—oriented immune responses, being a key molecular actor of the trypanosome-induced immunosuppression [ ]. However these technical considerations, which measure genetic divergence, neglect the most important concern we may have for these parasites: