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At the end of the test program, a full report of these results will be available.

ABS Group Training Instructors | Chris Leboeuf

USAESCH is involved in a test program to determine the thickness of sandbags necessary to defeat the primary fragments from a munition detonated on the ground surface. For most unexploded ordnance the fragmentation range is much larger than the inhabited building distance IBD for overpressure.

Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number.

Some typical soil data from TM are shown in Table 2. Also, where a crater is formed, the soil ejecta range is greater than the sandbag throw. Comparison with the sandbag test results and consideration of gic of the differences between the physical parameters of the tests and this analytical method indicates that this method generally produces conservative results.

Therefore, as a conservative estimate, all of the soil is assumed to have a density of one-half its undisturbed density for the purposes of calculating the drag coefficient on the fragment velocity. The theory used in the development of the BEM software will be discussed. The user is prompted to input the following values. However, if the munition is buried deeply enough a camouflet is formed instead and no soil is ejected from the site.


Box Huntsville, AL Telephone: To be consistent with the primary fragment calculations, the maximum range of the soil ejecta should be used. However, where a crater is formed a burial depth may be found where the fragment range will be less than the soil ejecta range.

Figure 1 – Maximum Ejecta Radii for Large Soil Chunks [2] Due to the nature of the equations used 12168 BEM, the calculations ti never result in a final fragment velocity and corresponding fragment range of zero.

Preliminary calculations for a variety of munitions show that by a distance of one foot from the center of the explosion, the fragment velocity is approximately twice that of the soil particles.

If X is greater than Y, a camouflet will be formed. If the energy release is sufficiently deep below the surface a void, called a camouflet, is formed. Therefore, there is not full coupling between the explosive event and the sandbags whereas BEM assumes full coupling between the explosive event and the soil. The burial depths determined using BEM are approximately twice the required thickness of sandbags from the sandbag tests.

The results from these tests are compared to the results from BEM in Table 3. If the energy release is relatively close to the surface, the cavity or void vents to the atmosphere and a crater is formed. If the depth of burial is zero surface burst the fragment does not pass through any soil and the velocity of the fragment is the initial velocity.


Chris Leboeuf

The soil slows down the fragments and, in some cases, may stop the fragments completely. The sandbag tests are run with a standoff between the munition and the sandbag.

A standard fragment is assumed. The theory used in BEM is discussed.

BlastX Analysis | Safety Management Services, Inc.

This software is described in the following sections. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, Jefferson Davis Highway, SuiteArlington VA Some commonly found munitions have been analyzed and the explosive 1128, initial velocity and maximum fragment weights are voe in Table 1.

The results from the BEM software are compared to the results obtained by applying the method by hand. Is a crater or a camouflet formed? Otherwise, the fragment do as it exits the soil is calculated using equation 6. Examination of the original soil hic data from AFWL-TR [5] shows that the average ratio between the maximum soil ejecta range and the range of one hazardous ejecta per square feet is 1.

There is no added benefit to burying the munition any deeper until reaching the depth at which a camouflet is formed. Also, BEM will never result in a zero fragment velocity and fragment range.

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