We used the handbook as developed by Frans Geilfus, which covers 80 tools for participatory development as an important base for this tools guide. A selection. Geilfus, Frans. 80 tools for participatory development: appraisal, planning, follow- up and evaluation / Frans Geilfus. — San Jose, C.R.: IICA,. p. ; 24 cm. Title: “80 Herramientas para el desarrollo participativo” de Frans Geilfus (IICA, ), Author: brenda chau pasco, Name: “80 Herramientas para el desarrollo.

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This situation makes evident their preference for the seed of greater size and uniformity, when choosing grains in the central and basal part of the corncob because they expect to obtain in their crops a higher number of seedlings that are gelifus vigorous. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Long-term warming restructures Arctic tundra without changing net soil carbon storage. Increase in the rate and uniformity of coastline erosion in Arctic Alaska. Among the activities most of the family income comes from, there are: Oceans, doi: Increased wintertime CO 2 loss as a result of sustained tundra warming. Abstract The current downturn of the arctic cryosphere, such as the strong loss of sea ice, melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and permafrost thaw, affects the marine and terrestrial carbon cycles in numerous interconnected ways.

The technique for seed selection that peasants carry out is acceptable, although they could add some measures: Primary producers on the sea floor including both micro- and macroalgae will be less limited by nutrients and are geildus expected to respond directly to light availability Glud et al.

Traditional selection of creole maize seed

It is therefore important to understand how sea ice decline influences the terrestrial carbon cycle, to improve forecasts of change. However, it should be noted that not all investigations have confirmed enhanced gas transfer in such environments Rutgers van der Loeff et al. A survey was carried out with 50 peasant heads of households.


If sea ice decline leads to higher temperatures and concurrently the Arctic does geeilfus become drier, then methane emissions are expected to increase.

Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia.

Brooke Milne, and Scott Hamilton. Terrestrial and oceanic sources and geikfus of the Arctic, our knowledge level, and the probable impact of a changing cryosphere on future trends. Her research interests include the degradation, transport and fate of thawing permafrost matter in the aquatic environment. In the question regarding other sources of income of the peasants surveyed, the research resulted in the following data. Lakes are net emitters of methane, and organic and frabs carbon dissolved and particulate flow into the ocean through freshwater systems.

Oceans9— The influence of glacial melt water on bio-optical properties in two contrasting Greenland fjords. A simple snow manipulation experiment in Sub-Arctic Geulfus showed that a doubling of the snow depth led to permafrost degradation and vegetation change in just a few years Johansson et al.

The main factors that explain seed exchange among the community are: For example, by coupling dissolved OC export from a terrestrial biosphere model to an ocean model, these two parts of the carbon cycle can interact.

80 herramientas para el desarrollo participativo: diagnóstico, planificación …

CO 2 and CH 4 in sea ice from a subarctic fjord under influence of riverine input. Observations have also shown that gases can be transported through warm, thin first-year sea ice Loose et al.

Ocean s, 1— This can lead to altered plant growth, increased permafrost thaw, and enhanced lateral flows of carbon through freshwater systems and coastal erosion. The hydrological cycle is an important connecting factor between the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding land.

Critically, the dramatic decline of this part of the cryosphere, exceeding even aggressive projections, is one of the main drivers for the rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic Screen et al. Changes in the Arctic Ocean CO 2 sink — Impacts of sea ice retreat, thinning, and melt-pond proliferation on the summer phytoplankton bloom in the Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean.


A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch.

Geilfus, Frans

Future increases in Arctic precipitation linked to local evaporation and sea-ice retreat. Although model simulations indicate that sea ice-induced warming increased arctic methane emissions by 1.

Airborne measurements also inherently include previously often neglected sources such as freshwater systems and geologic sources, which can be significant sources of methane and CO 2 Walter Anthony et al. Seasonal sea ice cover as principal driver of spatial and temporal variation in depth extension and annual production of kelp in Greenland.

The identification performed by peasants of the size of the corncob as main characteristic is in relation to the conditions of rainfed agriculture that is practiced, which requires sowing geilfux a greater depth and, therefore, requires seed with higher reserve content to emerge.

Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change. An assessment of the carbon balance of Arctic tundra: British Archaeological Reports, International Series. Another important control on the stability of permafrost soils is ggeilfus depth. To obtain products such gdilfus grains, fodders, fibers, animals or their byproducts, in addition to some geilfuw byproducts for his domestic unit or that get profits in the market As a result, the amount of carbon stored in above-ground biomass rose, but the net carbon balance in the soil was near zero.

Frans Geilfus – Google+

Published online Jan Since gas transfer in the open ocean is strongly driven by waves e. The effect of vascular plants on carbon turnover and methane emissions from a tundra wetland. Vancoppenolle, Martin, Klaus M.

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