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Ginecología de Novak

Procedure for removing the cervical mucus. False negative frequency in the cervical secretion CS samples and clean, second samples SS. In our study, the only positive case detected in the CS not detected in the SS was a lesion in the vaginal wall that was not accessible to the instrument for sampling the cervix in the SS.

Evaluation of two simultaneously obtained cervical cytology smears. The sensitivities for CS and SS were All patients referred to the laboratory for a second opinion had previous CIN detected 1 to 6 months earlier. Cervical cytology specimen adequacy: In this study, we analyzed samples obtained with or without cleaning the cervix, and compared their contents in order to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these two methods. Cervical secretions CS are always present in variable proportions, and when cleaning the cervix, better samples may be obtained.

The samples should be obtained by trained personnel, including gynecologists, and ideally, the sample should be taken from the transformation zone TZ [ 23 ]. To date, no analysis on what the mucus contains from the cervix has been performed.

tinecologia This could be justified in part by the presence of an atrophic cervix, a small TZ, or by the squamocolumnar junction not being visible. Materials and methods Subjects Out of consecutive patients who attended our laboratory for cytology and colposcopy between June and March There were no false positive results in the SS. Disclosure of conflict of interest None. They found that after the cervix had been swabbed, more ASs were obtained but less CIN cases were detected, and concluded that this was likely attributable to the age of the participants, as well as the possibility that some cases of CIN had cleared when the second study was being conducted.


In cytology cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance ASC-US or in which a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion ginecologix not be excluded ASC-Hadditional slides were analyzed for p16 expression to confirm or rule out CIN. However, when the cervix is cleaned using a cytobrush, the abundance of the mucus becomes apparent, and these CS samples were found to have less epithelial cells and more inflammatory reactions than the samples obtained from the cleaned cervix.

P16 INK4a Ve impreoves interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In cases of atrophy or if the SQCJ was not visible in endocervical canal with a very small orifice, two devices were used: In conclusion, it is currently not clear for the physicians and personnel who are involved in sampling the cervix what the optimal way to handle CS is.

False positive frequency in CS samples. Received Jul 4; Accepted Aug The brush is rolled gently without touching the cervical surface. All CIN-positive cases detected in the CS samples and SS were confirmed by biopsy and p16 immunohistochemical staining, and were considered true positive cases.

Examples of different cervix, both with large ectopia, abundant mucus, with the brush, showing how to clean it getting the mucus to the novaak in A and left in B.

La crétinisation par la culture

Dysplastic cells of the same patient, gniecologia A from the Cs, with more inflammatory cells, and the nucleus of the atypical cells are note clearly seen.

Most patients were middle-class Caucasian or Hispanic women.

The composition of these secretions is reflected in the cytology specimens, and conventional cytology slides are ginscologia abundant in inflammatory material. Accordingly, the authors concluded that the cervix should be wiped at the discretion of the clinician. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated using biopsy as the gold standard.

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Does liquid-based technology really improve detection of cervical neoplasia? The reference standard for the positive true diagnosis was the combined results of the biopsy and p16 staining, whereas a true negative diagnosis was based on negative results for CIN in the biopsy [ 16 ] and negative p16 staining [ 1718 ].

Conversely, the CS was in contact with the vaginal wall and contained diagnostic cells in this case, and the biopsy found a typical condyloma with koilocytes. Of the cases, ASs were found in The laboratory is a private practice, serving a low-risk population in Mexico City, Mexico. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. Sensitivity of cervical cytology is suboptimal, especially in developing countries such as Mexico, despite available guidelines aimed at improving this. Of patients who underwent cytology and colposcopy, Cervical cancer screening in the 21st century, is it time to retire PAP Smear?

Thus, gently removing the CS without touching the cervical surface should be recommended in any procedure for obtaining a cervical cytology sample. However, none of these ginecopogia analyzed the content of the CS in order to clarify whether there is a real reason to perform cervical cleaning or not.

Am J Surg Path. Removing ignecologia secretions without touching the cervix has been shown to preserve important diagnostic cells in the cervix, which may be removed using a swab, especially if the lesion is small.

One positive case detected in the CS was not detected in the SS. Results Of the cases, ASs were found in

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