Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Ya Wang and others published Hayling Sentence Completion Test }. Download Table | Hayling Sentence Completion Test from publication: Verbal suppression and strategy use: A role for the right lateral prefrontal cortex? | Verbal. The Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT) measures prepotent response inhibition, useful to assess inhibition deficit in a variety of clinical.

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The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of the f- HSCT norms in two clinical populations in which inhibition dysfunction has been largely documented, i.


Eighty-five non-demented patients with idiopathic PD and 64 out-patients with schizophrenia completed the automatic and inhibition conditions of the f- HSCT. Time latencies and errors raw data of each patient were compared to the norms previously developed by the authors.

In the automatic condition, errors were rare in both clinical groups and time latencies on this condition felt within the normative data range. Finally, slightly more than half of patients with PD and more than two-thirds of patients with schizophrenia had a deviant performance on at least one of the f -HSCT inhibition measures.

Our results suggest that the f -HSCT has a strong potential for characterizing inhibition of prepotent responses in PD and schizophrenia. Furthermore, it requires only a short administration time so it may be ideal to detect response inhibition in clinical populations with cognitive fatigue. In research setting, between-group comparisons have largely documented a decrease in HSCT performances in individuals with a large variety of clinical conditions when compared to matched-healthy controls.

In both research and clinical contexts, using normative data developed from healthy individuals to assess groups of patients may allow to identify the presence or absence of specific cognitive deficits. This is also a relevant issue in terms of indexing patient’s evolution across time, which is a central concern when assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation or of the cognitive profile evolution in both neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders.

In other words, examination of individual profiles established from norms may shed a light on the way a test should be used in clinical practice. As pointed out by Belleville and coworkerstests with a heterogeneous performance have strong clinical utility as qualifiers of differential impairment and potential markers for patient subtyping, and for the development of differential modes of intervention.

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In turns, clinical tools with highly homogenous impairment in a defined clinical population are likely to be powerful diagnostic markers of one specific cognitive alteration or another. We recently established HSCT normative data, adjusted for the linguistic and cultural realities of the French population Bayard et al.

Overall and in spite of this background, to our knowledge, the clinical utility of HSCT has not been studied. This clinical aspect is nevertheless of fundamental interest for an appropriate interpretation of cognitive performances as a critical component of functional status in individuals with neuropsychological disturbances.

According to this context, the general aim of the present work was to explore the clinical utility of our recent French’s HSCT norms Bayard et al. By applying f -HSCT normative data previously developed by authors, the objectives of the current study are threefold: Eighty-five non-demented patients with idiopathic PD were enrolled in this study.

Patients had been diagnosed with idiopathic PD according to the Queen Square Brain Bank criteria and gave informed consent met inclusion criteria. Dementia was excluded using specific diagnostic clinical criteria Emre et al.


Demographic data, disease characteristics, and medication with particular attention to dopamine agonists and psychoactive drugs were collected during a face-to-face interview. Patients were recruited from the University Department of Neurology in Montpellier. Sixty-four patients with schizophrenia who fulfill the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, currently receiving inpatient or outpatient care were included.

Patients were in a stable phase of the illness according to the current treating psychiatrist with no hospitalizations or changes in housing in the month prior to entering the study. It was systematically introduced into a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests used in routine clinical procedure.

Hayling and Brixton Tests | Pearson Assessment

To establish the individual profile of each patient, f -HSCT results were compared to the appropriate norms developed by the authors. Table 1 presents the demographic data of the clinical samples. Demographical data, response latencies and number of errors in the Hayling Sentence Completion Test.

Hayllng PD duration at the time of study was 9. The motor severity of the disease was 2. The mean duration of illness was 9. All patients were taking antipsychotic medication. In addition, 16 patients were receiving benzodiazepines, nine antidepressants, and eight anticholinergics. Average level of positive and negative symptoms was respectively No further analyses were performed on this raw score.

As shown in Fig. Clinical decision in patients with Parkinson’s disease A and schizophrenia B based on their response latency and error scores on the French version of the Hayling Sentence Completioj Test. In this study, we were interested in exploring the clinical utility and the sensitivity of the f- HSCT in PD and schizophrenia.

Nevertheless, the measure of executive performances, in particular the prepotent response inhibition may induce several methodological problems in these specific contexts Strauss et al.

By consequences, in order to establish the executive sentnece of a deficit of a specific patient, one must be able to identify or control practically all other non-executive contributions to the task. Practically all inhibition tests, including the HSCT, imply the measurement of a time-based performance relying on various motor aspects, i.

Similarly, it has been proposed that deficits in executive sub-processes may simply reflect more general cognitive decline in schizophrenia. Same pattern of results was observed for the error indices. Performances on the automatic section can be used to examine speed of lexical activation which is the main non-executive process involved in this test.

In view of our findings, in both PD and schizophrenia, this process does not seem to be considered as a potential non-executive contributor to the f- HSCT inhibition performance.

It should be pointed out that, in our normative study, no norms were proposed for the automatic condition given the restricted ranges of response latencies and errors Bayard et al.

Therefore, no ratio scores were derived from the automatic and inhibition conditions during the normalization process.

We observed that slightly hyaling than half of patients with PD and more than two-thirds of patients with schizophrenia had a deviant performance on at least one of the f- HSCT inhibition indices after applying the norms.

These clinical observations are in line with previous case-controlled studies using the HSCT performed on modest clinical samples of patients with PD Obeso et al. Globally, all these studies indicated that both PD and schizophrenia patients were slower and had higher error rate on the inhibition condition than healthy controls.

It should be noted that in the literature, performances on the automatic condition are never reported in PD and are not systematically described in schizophrenia.

When results were available for this condition, no significant difference was observed between patients with schizophrenia and controls Chan et al. This observation is in accordance with our results showing that performances on the automatic condition of patients with schizophrenia felt within the ranges of the normative sample.


In addition, our results emphasized the heterogeneity of the tewt impairment in both PD and schizophrenia when individual profile analysis is considered. From a clinical perspective, all of these observations stressed the strong clinical utility the f- HSCT as a qualifier of differential impairment and a potential marker for patient haylling.

Our study has several limitations. First, our two sample sizes were relatively small. Therefore, the results should only be generalized with caution. Second, patients with schizophrenia who participated in the study were chronic patients and clinically stabilized.

Therefore, our results cannot be generalized to persons experiencing acute phases of illness or their first episode schizophrenia. Third, we recruited non-demented patients with PD, and it should be pertinent in the future to explore the f- HSCT performances of patients with Parkinson’s dementia. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that the f -HSCT has strong potential for characterizing prepotent response inhibition impairment in both PD and schizophrenia.

In these diseases, it appears that the non-executive potential contributors triggered by the test do not have to be a priori considered for the inhibition impairment interpretation. However, attention should be drawn to the fact that results on the inhibition condition need to be carefully interpreted if impairment is observed on the automatic section indices. Especially as normative data distribution does not allow calculating a ratio between the automatic and the inhibition conditions.

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