Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy – Wikipedia

And if someone today wanted to find out by himself all the arguments which have been discovered by the theorists of the legal schools on controversial questions, about which debate has taken place between them in most countries of Islam except the West44 he would deserve to be ridiculed, because such a task is impossible for him, apart from the fact that the work has been done already.

God is the Giver of success and the Guide by His Goodness. The whole of this [argument] is founded on the immortality of the soul. Home About Help Search. But most masters of this religion support intellectual reasoning, except a small group of gross literalists, who can be refuted by [sacred] texts.

This is the way to resolve this difficulty, as it appears to us; and what has been said is incontestable and indubitable. But it is preferable and even necessary for anyone, who wants to understand God the Exalted and the other beings demonstratively, to have first understood the kinds of demonstration and their conditions [of validity]and in what respects demonstrative reasoning differs from dialectical, rhetorical and fallacious reasoning.

On the harmony of religion and philosophy: These are the four or five classes of beings mentioned by Abu Hamid in The book of the distinction.

If, when beings come to exist after not having existed, there occurred an addition in the eternal Knowledge such as occurs in originated knowledge, it would follow that the eternal Knowledge would be an effect of beings, not their cause.


Death is a cessation; it must therefore be of the organ, as is the case in sleep. Philosophy contains nothing opposed to Islam.

Formats and Editions of Kitāb fasl al-maqāl []

Thus to the class [of kihab who notice this much, these sayings ought to be brought down to that one of those four modes of existence which most nearly resembles [the essential mode].

A nother class is the people of dialectical interpretation: So whoever wishes to remove this heresy from religion should direct his attention to the precious Book, and glean from it the indications present [in it] concerning kitah in turn that it obliges us to believe, arid exercise his judgment in looking at its apparent meaning as well as he is able, without interpreting any of it allegorically, except where kitav allegorical meaning is apparent in itself, i.

But what calls even more strongly for comparison with the art of mathematics in this respect is the art of the principles of law; and the study of law itself was completed only over a long period of time.

It is God who helps us to follow the right course and directs us to the truth. Now since this religion is true and summons to the study which leads kitan knowledge of the Truth, we the Muslim community know definitely that demonstrative study does not lead to [conclusions] conflicting with what Scripture has given us; for truth does not oppose truth but accords with it and bears witness to it.

In sum, it can hardly be conceived that the knowledge of a thing before it exists can be identical with the knowledge of it after it exists. I thank my wife and Mrs.


He asserted that knowledge and the object known are related; and as one of two related things may change without the other changing in itself, this is just what seems to happen to things in the Knowledge of God the Glorious: But both alternatives are impossible for God the Fawl. The fourth [class] occurs where the premisses are based on accepted ideas or opinions, without being accidentally certain, and where the conclusions are symbols for what it was intended to conclude.


But every opinion is permissible except total rejection of another life. Parentheses or numerations attributable to Ibn Rushd.

The translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd A verroes Kit a b f a sl a l – m a q a l, ed. But it is now clear from what we have said that this is not iitab case. Abu Hamid did not make such a distinction: It is our desire to devote our time to this object and achieve it effectively, and if God grants us a respite of life we shall work steadily towards it in so far as this is aal-maqal possible for us; and it may be that that work will serve as a starting point for our successors.

I have been fortunate in having the translation carefully read and criticized by R. The Arabic article is omitted in front of single names, e. But anyone who is not a man of learning is obliged to take these passages in their apparent meaning, and allegorical interpretation of them is for him unbelief because it le a ds to unbelief. He has coined for them images and likenesses of these things, and summoned them to assent to those images, since it is possible for assent to those images to come about through the indications common to all men, i.

Don’t have an account? They agree also about naming the extremes; but they disagree about the intermediate class.

In memory of my father

Their view is that His al-msqal of both particulars and universals differs from ours, in being the cause, not an effect, of the object known. If it al-maaql there is a call for allegorical interpretation of it.

They also agree with the ancients in the view that future time is infinite and likewise future being. If it is unmentioned there is no contradiction, and it is in the same case as an act whose category is unmentioned, so that the lawyer has to infer it by reasoning from Scripture.

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