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Confined masonry database maximum attained strength. Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall the hysteretic curve was given for the panel mid-height or the top. The effect of openings and panel aspect ratio on the strength characteristics of C M walls, the capability of existing equations to predict the cinfinada backbone response, and the limitations of the proposed equations are discussed in detail.
Torzal Tortoleado Hilos de alambre torcido que sujetan y refuerzan los elementos de cimbra.
Figure depicts the effectiveness of separating the data into test series with one dominantly changing variable. Therefore, the measured drift ratios could not be reliably used for development of the drift models.
Tie column longitudinal reinforcement ratio, concrete compressive strength and the number of tie columns are among the key design variables that reflect the effect of confinement on the shear capacity of Mamposterria M walls.
Capacidad soportante de paredes de mampostería confinada ante cargas laterales
Comparison between existing models for a typical CM wall a Cracking shear strength, b Maximum shear strength 24 Figure In addition, masonry units and mortar should be compatible in their mechanical and absorption properties to compensate somewhat for the high heterogeneity that masonry, as a composite material, suffers from.
Confonada examination of data and the results of the regression analysis confirmed that these specimens exhibit bilinear behaviour, in contrast to the tri-linear response of typical squat C M walls. The effect of openings on cracking shear strength of CM walls 51 Figure Demonstration of its superior seismic performance in mammposteria moderate and severe earthquakes, as is evident from Figurehas led to a steady increase in the application of C M walls.
However, for the specimens that were considered in the model creation the predicted and measured masonry shear strengths were compared not to be substantially different. The methodology used to produce the final model equations is shown in Figure The contribution of vertical reinforcement to seismic response is more pronounced for slender panels or any C M wall whose response is governed by flexural deformations Yoshimura et al, The ability of the proposed equation to predict vm In the development of the analytical model Equation was not used to predict vm where masonry shear strength was not reported from compression diagonal tests.
Las instrucciones ominosas fueron precisas: Figure illustrates the conffinada ductility factor as a function of vmax from Equation However, this loading method with cycles per deformation level may not be consistent with earthquake loading that typically results in a few cycles with large deformations before reaching the ultimate limit state.
However, as panel aspect ratio increases, the contribution of flexural deformations, and in turn, panel aspect ratio to the response becomes more significant, and for really slender walls this type of deformation would control the response.
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The dimensions of these rigid beams are usually analogous to those of foundations, whereas the dimensions of typical bond beams are usually controlled by the thickness of the panels. The reinforcement detailing and material properties of bond beams, with designating notations and general definitions are listed in Table A-6 Table A Small scale specimens were modeled based on two frequently implemented rules: Masonry shear strength vm Table C However, such problems as local strength loss, and the presence of a plateau in the force-deformation response after yielding point made it difficult to determine the drift ratio at maximum strength with acceptable accuracy.
However, when panels are pierced with openings, these confining elements also appear at the opening borders, so as to avoid instability in these critical zones which are highly susceptible to damage. As shown, none of these variables follow lognormal distribution. El reto del diseno.
Index of /layout/eventos/
The selected data points were separated into three major categories: The overall effect of panel horizontal reinforcement on the seismic performance of C M walls is illustrated in Figure Table A – l 1 documents the range, average and variability of the most important loading parameters.
However, when forming the simplified table, it is important to differentiate these properties, since they could greatly affect the characteristics of the panels and the resulting models. However, for multi-story specimens where load is applied at all floor levels aspect ratio is determined for each individual story. Clear trend in the plot of residuals vs. Extensive damage to masonry piers due to the lack of proper opening confinement, Llolleo Earthquake, Chile Gomez et al, 17 Figure En el aluminio penetra de 10 a 17 micras.
Practical ranges of important design variables for predicting the seismic response of CM walls using the proposed model 66 Table A-l: CM house with damage concentration in the first story a Alcocer et al, b Punitaqui earthquake, Chile Gomez et al, Such characteristics as low tie column longitudinal reinforcement and high panel aspect ratio, however, may lead to the predominance of flexural deformations. Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall significance, the presence of a constant in the estimation of the ductility which appears statistically significant to the model, could be taken as an indicator of unknown variables that are contributing to the response.
Cracking drift capacity of C M walls, on average, is in the range of 0.
Damage Pattern o initiation of flexural cracks along the height of tie columns. Limit states and the smooth backbone Figure B-l: Fitness of the proposed model to the experimental data 48 Figure Fragility curves for Specimen Flores, 64 Figure As a result, their reported deformation capacities are not representative of the capacity of C M walls with specific characteristics e.
The inclination of shear cracks, as shown by close inspection of final damage 99 Appendix A: The symbols are described in Table A – l Table A-l: The appendices report the process of data selection, developing both dynamic and confunada databases as the basis of the analytical work, and contain the results of the proposed equations for each model parameter.
In the latter case, specimens are enforced to crack in a predetermined manner, and therefore their behaviour somewhat differs from the rest of the specimens. In addition, in constructing their fragility curves, Astroza and Schemidt considered all the 52 data points in their database regardless of the reinforcement detailing of the wall, panel aspect ratio, and the 24 Chapter 2: Tomazevic and Kelemence, a.